Neurology Central

Precision medicine in circadian rhythm sleep–wake disorders: current state and future perspectives

In circadian rhythm sleep–wake disorders precision medicine is less developed than in other medical disciplines mainly because homeostatic sleep and circadian timing have a very complex phenotype with multiple genetic regulation mechanisms. However, biomarkers, phenotyping and psychosocial characteristics are increasingly used. Devices for polysomnography, actigraphy and sleep-tracking applications in mobile phones and other consumer devices with eHealth technologies are increasingly used. Also sleep-related questionnaires and the assessment of co-morbidities influencing sleep in circadian rhythm sleep–wake disorders are major contributors to precision sleep medicine. To further strengthen the (pharmaco-)genetic and biomarker pillar, technology needs to be evolved further. Routinely measuring treatment results using patient-reported outcome measures and clinical neurophysiological instruments will boost precision sleep medicine.
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