Neurology Central

Search for Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers in blood cells: hypotheses-driven approach

Current Alzheimer’s disease (AD) diagnostics is based on cognitive testing, and detecting amyloid Aβ and τ pathology by brain imaging and assays of cerebrospinal fluid. However, biomarkers identifying complex pathways contributing to pathology are lacking, especially for early AD. Preferably, such biomarkers should be more cost-effective and present in easily available diagnostic tissues, such as blood. Here, we summarize the recent findings of potential early AD molecular diagnostic biomarkers in blood platelets, lymphocytes and erythrocytes. We review molecular alterations which refer to such main hypotheses of AD pathogenesis as amyloid cascade, oxidative and mitochondrial stress, inflammation and alterations in cell cycle regulatory molecules. The major advantage of such biomarkers is the potential ability to indicate individualized therapies in AD patients.
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